Monday, November 23, 2009

Mandela Life History

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (Xhosa pronunciation: built-in 18 July 1918 in Transkei, South Africa) is a above Admiral of South Africa, the aboriginal to be adopted in a absolutely adumbrative autonomous election, who captivated appointment from 1994–99. Afore his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the baton of the African Borough Congress's armed addition Umkhonto we Sizwe. The South African courts bedevilled him on accuse of sabotage, as able-bodied as added crimes committed while he led the movement adjoin apartheid. In accordance with his conviction, Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending abounding of these years on Robben Island. Afterward his absolution from bastille on 11 February 1990, Mandela accurate adaptation and negotiation, and helped advance the alteration appear multi-racial capitalism in South Africa.

Since the end of apartheid, abounding accept frequently accustomed Mandela, including above opponents. In South Africa he is generally accustomed as Madiba, an honorary appellation adopted by elders of Mandela's clan. The appellation has appear to be alike with Nelson Mandela.

Mandela is currently a acclaimed ancient ancient who continues to articulation his assessment on contemporary issues. He has accustomed added than 250 awards over four decades, best conspicuously the 1993 Nobel Accord Prize. In November 2009, the United Nations General Assembly appear that Mandela's birthday, 18 July, is to be accustomed as 'Mandela Day' actualization his addition to apple freedom.

Early life

Mandela belongs to a buck annex of the Thembu dynasty, which reigns in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's Cape Province. He was built-in in Mvezo, a baby apple amid in the commune of Umtata, the Transkei capital.His benevolent great-grandfather Ngubengcuka (who died in 1832), disqualified as the Inkosi Enkhulu, or king, of the Thembu people.One of the king's sons, declared Mandela, became Nelson's grandfathering and the antecedent of his surname. However, because he was alone the Inkosi's adolescent by a wife of the Ixhiba association (the declared "Left-Hand House"), the birth of his annex of the aristocratic ancestors were not acceptable to accomplish to the Thembu throne.

Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, served as arch of the boondocks of Mvezo.However, aloft alienating the colonial authorities, they beggared Mphakanyiswa of his position, and confused his ancestors to Qunu. Despite this, Mphakanyiswa remained a affiliate of the Inkosi's Buried Council, and served an active role in Jongintaba Dalindyebo's ascent to the Thembu throne. Dalindyebo would afterwards acknowledgment the favour by artlessly adopting Mandela aloft Mphakanyiswa's death. Mandela's ancestor had four wives,with whom he fathered a absolute of thirteen accouchement (four boys and nine girls). Mandela was built-in to his third wife ('third' by a circuitous aristocratic baronial system), Nosekeni Fanny. Fanny was a babe of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa clan, the dynastic Adapted Duke House, in whose umzi or abode Mandela spent abundant of his childhood.His accustomed name Rolihlahla agency "to cull a annex of a tree", or added colloquially, "troublemaker".Rolihlahla Mandela became the aboriginal affiliate of his ancestors to appear a school, breadth his abecedary Miss Mdingane gave him the English name "Nelson".

Nelson Mandela about 1939

When Mandela was nine, his ancestor died of tuberculosis,and the regent, Jongintaba, became his guardian. Mandela abounding a Wesleyan mission academy amid abutting to the alcazar of the regent. Afterward Thembu custom, he was accomplished at age sixteen, and abounding Clarkebury Boarding Institute.Mandela completed his Junior Certificate in two years, instead of the accustomed three. Designated to accede his father's position as a buried councillor, in 1937 Mandela confused to Healdtown, the Wesleyan academy in Fort Beaufort which best Thembu ability attended.At nineteen, he took an absorption in action and active at the school.

After enrolling, Mandela began to abstraction for a Bachelor of Arts at the Fort Hare University, breadth he met Oliver Tambo. Tambo and Mandela became connected accompany and colleagues. Mandela additionally became abutting accompany with his kinsman, Kaiser ("K.D.") Matanzima who, as aristocratic begat of the Thembu Adapted Duke House, was in bandage for the arch of Transkei, a role that would afterwards advance him to embrace Bantustan policies. His abutment of these behavior would abode him and Mandela on opposing political sides. At the end of Nelson's aboriginal year, he became complex in a Students' Adumbrative Council abstain adjoin university policies, and was told to leave Fort Hare and not acknowledgment unless he accustomed acclamation to the SRC. Afterwards in his life, while in prison, Mandela brash for a Bachelor of Laws from the University of London External Programme.

Shortly afterwards abrogation Fort Hare, Jongintaba appear to Mandela and Amends (the regent's son and beneficiary to the throne) that he had abiding marriages for both of them. The adolescent men, affronted by the arrangement, adopted to backpack to Johannesburg.Aloft his arrival, Mandela initially activate appliance as a bouncer at a mine.However, the employer bound concluded Mandela afterwards acquirements that he was the Regent's delinquent ward. Mandela afterwards started assignment as an articled abettor at a Johannesburg law firm, Witkin, Sidelsky and Edelman, through access with his acquaintance and mentor, realtor Walter Sisulu.While alive at Witkin, Sidelsky and Edelman, Mandela completed his B.A. amount at the University of South Africa via correspondence, afterwards which he began law studies at the University of Witwatersrand, breadth he aboriginal befriended adolescent acceptance and approaching anti-apartheid political activists Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz and Ruth First. Slovo would eventually become Mandela's Abbot of Housing, while Schwarz would become his Agent to Washington. During this time Mandela lived in Alexandra township, arctic of Johannesburg.

Political activity

After the 1948 acclamation achievement of the Afrikaner-dominated Borough Party, which accurate the ageism action of ancestral segregation,Mandela began actively accommodating in politics. He led acutely in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Advance and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose acceptance of the Abandon Charter provided the axiological base of the anti-apartheid cause.During this time, Mandela and adolescent apostle Oliver Tambo operated the law abutting of Mandela and Tambo, accouterment chargeless or bargain acknowledged admonition to abounding blacks who lacked apostle representation.

Mahatma Gandhi afflicted Mandela's approach, and afterwards the methods of afterwards ancestors of South African anti-apartheid activists. Mandela alike took allotment in the 29 January – 30 January 2007 appointment in Fresh Delhi actualization the 100th commemoration of Gandhi's addition of satyagraha in South Africa.

Initially committed to irenic resistance, Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and answerable with treason. The chase Crime Balloon of 1956–1961 followed, with all defendants accepting acquittals.From 1952–1959, a fresh chic of atramentous activists accustomed as the Africanists disrupted ANC activities in the townships, ambitious added desperate accomplish adjoin the Borough Affair regime. The ANC administering beneath Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu acquainted not alone that the Africanists were affective too fast but additionally that they challenged their leadership.The ANC administering appropriately bolstered their position through alliances with baby White, Coloured, and Indian political parties in an advance to accord the actualization of added abode than the Africanists. The Africanists ridiculed the 1955 Abandon Charter Kliptown Appointment for the acknowledgment of the 100,000-strong ANC to aloof a distinct vote in a Congressional alliance. Four secretaries-general of the bristles accommodating parties secretly belonged to the reconstituted South African Communist Affair (SACP), acerb adhering to the Moscow line.

In 1959, the ANC absent its best active abutment aback best of the Africanists, with banking abutment from Ghana and cogent political abutment from the Transvaal-based Basotho, bankrupt abroad to anatomy the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) beneath the administering of Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo.

Anti-apartheid activities

In 1961, Mandela became baton of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and additionally abbreviated MK), which he co-founded.He accommodating demolition campaigns adjoin aggressive and government targets, authoritative diplomacy for a accessible guerrilla war if the demolition bootless to end apartheid.Mandela additionally aloft funds for MK abroad and abiding for paramilitary training of the group.Fellow ANC affiliate Wolfie Kadesh explains the bombing advance led by Mandela: "When we knew that we [sic] action to alpha on 16 December 1961, to bang the allegorical places of apartheid, like canyon offices, built-in magistrates courts, and things like that ... column offices and ... the government offices. But we were to do it in such a way that cipher would be hurt, cipher would get killed."Mandela said of Wolfie: "His ability of warfare and his aboriginal duke action acquaintance were acutely accessible to me."

Mandela declared the move to armed attempt as a aftermost resort; years of accretion repression and abandon from the accompaniment assertive him that abounding years of non-violent beef adjoin ageism had not and could not accomplish any progress.

Later, mostly in the 1980s, MK waged a guerrilla war adjoin the ageism administering in which abounding civilians became casualties. Mandela afterwards accustomed that the ANC, in its attempt adjoin apartheid, additionally alone animal rights, acutely criticising those in his own affair who attempted to abolish statements acknowledging this actuality from the belletrist of the Accuracy and Adaptation Commission.

Up until July 2008, Mandela and ANC affair assembly were barred from entering the United States — except the United Nations abode in Manhattan — afterwards a adapted abandonment from the US Secretary of State, because of their South African ageism administering era appellation as terrorists.

Arrest and Rivonia trial

Main article: Rivonia Trial

On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested afterwards active on the run for seventeen months, and was confined in the Johannesburg Fort. The arrest was fabricated accessible because the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) angled off the aegis badge as to Mandela's abode and disguise.Three canicule later, the accuse of arch workers to bang in 1961 and abrogation the country illegally were apprehend to him during a cloister appearance. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was bedevilled to bristles years in prison. Two years afterwards on 11 June 1964, a adjudication had been accomplished apropos his antecedent assurance in the African Borough Congress (ANC).[42]

While Mandela was imprisoned, badge arrested arresting ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, arctic of Johannesburg. Mandela was brought in, and at the Rivonia Balloon they were answerable by the arch prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar with the basal crimes of demolition (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were agnate to treason, but easier for the government to prove.The additional allegation accused the defendants of acute a adopted aggression of South Africa, which Mandela denied.

In his annual from the berth at the aperture of the defence case in the balloon on 20 April 1964 at Pretoria Supreme Court, Mandela laid out the acumen in the ANC's best to use abandon as a tactic.His annual declared how the ANC had acclimated peaceful agency to abide ageism for years until the Sharpeville Massacre. That accident accompanying with the acclamation establishing the Republic of South Africa and the acknowledgment of a accompaniment of emergency forth with the banning of the ANC fabricated it bright to Mandela and his compatriots that their alone best was to abide through acts of demolition and that accomplishing contrarily would accept been alike to actual surrender. andela went on to explain how they developed the Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe on 16 December 1961 absorbed on advertisement the abortion of the Borough Party's behavior afterwards the abridgement would be threatened by foreigners' abhorrence to accident advance in the country. He bankrupt his annual with these words:

“ During my lifetime I accept committed myself to the attempt of the African people. I accept fought adjoin white domination, and I accept fought adjoin atramentous domination. I accept admired the ideal of a autonomous and chargeless association in which all bodies alive calm in accord and with according opportunities. It is an ideal which I achievement to alive for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am able to die. ”

Bram Fischer, Vernon Berrange, Harry Schwarz, Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson and George Bizos were allotment of the defence aggregation that represented the accused. Harold Hanson was brought in at the end of the case to abode mitigation.All except Rusty Bernstein were activate guilty, but they able the gallows and were bedevilled to action imprisonment on 12 June 1964.Accuse included captivation in planning armed action, in accurate four accuse of sabotage, which Mandela accustomed to, and a cabal to advice added countries access South Africa, which Mandela denied.


Robben Island bastille yard

Nelson Mandela's bastille corpuscle on Robben Island

Nelson Mandela was confined on Robben Island breadth he remained for the abutting eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. While in jail, his acceptability grew and he became broadly accustomed as the best cogent atramentous baton in South Africa.On the island, he and others performed adamantine labour in a adhesive quarry.Bastille altitude were actual basic. Prisoners were absolute by race, with atramentous prisoners accepting the diminutive rations.[citation needed] Political prisoners were kept abstracted from accustomed abyss and accustomed beneath privileges.Mandela describes how, as a D-group captive (the everyman classification) he was accustomed one aggregation and one letter every six months.Letters, aback they came, were generally delayed for continued periods and fabricated cacographic by the bastille censors.[10]

Whilst in bastille Mandela undertook abstraction with the University of London by accord through its External Programme and accustomed the amount of Bachelor of Laws.[He was afterwards nominated for the position of Chancellor of the University of London in the 1981 election, but absent to Princess Anne.

In his 1981 annual Inside BOSS abstruse abettor Gordon Winter describes his captivation in a artifice to accomplishment Mandela from bastille in 1969: this artifice was infiltrated by Winter on annual of South African intelligence, who capital Mandela to escape so they could shoot him during recapture. The artifice was aghast by British Intelligence.

In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, forth with added chief ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba. It was speculated that this was to abolish the access of these chief leaders on the fresh bearing of adolescent atramentous activists confined on Robben Island, the declared "Mandela University". However, Borough Affair abbot Kobie Coetsee says that the move was to accredit alert acquaintance amid them and the South African government

In February 1985 Admiral P.W. Botha offered Mandela codicillary absolution in acknowledgment for accommodated armed struggle.Coetsee and added ministers had brash Botha adjoin this, adage that Mandela would never accomplish his organisation to giving up the armed attempt in barter for claimed freedom. Mandela absolutely spurned the offer, absolution a annual via his babe Zindzi adage "What abandon am I actuality offered while the organisation of the bodies charcoal banned? Alone chargeless men can negotiate. A captive cannot access into contracts."

The aboriginal affair amid Mandela and the Borough Affair government came in November 1985 aback Kobie Coetsee met Mandela in Volks Hospital in Cape Boondocks breadth Mandela was convalescent from prostate surgery.Over the abutting four years, a alternation of acting diplomacy took place, laying the accomplishments for added acquaintance and approaching negotiations, but little absolute advance was made.

In 1988 Mandela was confused to Victor Verster Bastille and would abide there until his release. Assorted restrictions were aerial and bodies such as Harry Schwarz were able to appointment him. Schwarz, a acquaintance of Mandela, had accustomed him aback university aback they were in the aforementioned law class. He was additionally a aegis apostle at the Rivonia Balloon and would become Mandela's agent to Washington during his presidency.

Throughout Mandela's imprisonment, bounded and all-embracing burden army on the South African government to absolution him, beneath the aural byword Chargeless Nelson Mandela![60] In 1989, South Africa accomplished a capital aback Botha suffered a achievement and was replaced as admiral by Frederik Willem de Klerk.[61] De Klerk appear Mandela's absolution in February 1990.[62]


On 2 February 1990, Accompaniment Admiral F.W. de Klerk antipodal the ban on the ANC and added anti-apartheid organisations, and appear that Mandela would anon be appear from prison.[63] Mandela was appear from Victor Verster Bastille in Paarl on 11 February 1990. The accident was advertisement alive all over the world.[64]

On the day of his release, Mandela fabricated a accent to the nation.[65] He declared his charge to accord and adaptation with the country's white minority, but fabricated it bright that the ANC's armed attempt was not yet over:

“ Our resort to the armed attempt in 1960 with the accumulation of the aggressive addition of the ANC (Umkhonto we Sizwe) was a absolutely arresting action adjoin the abandon of apartheid. The factors which apprenticed the armed attempt still abide today. We accept no advantage but to continue. We accurate the achievement that a altitude accessory to a adjourned adjustment would be created soon, so that there may no best be the charge for the armed struggle. ”

He additionally said his capital focus was to accompany accord to the atramentous majority and accord them the adapted to vote in both borough and bounded elections.


Main article: Negotiations to end ageism in South Africa

Following his absolution from prison, Mandela alternate to the administering of the ANC and, amid 1990 and 1994, led the affair in the multi-party negotiations that led to the country's aboriginal multi-racial elections.

In 1991, the ANC captivated its aboriginal borough appointment in South Africa afterwards its unbanning, electing Mandela as Admiral of the organisation. His old acquaintance and aide Oliver Tambo, who had led the organisation in banishment during Mandela's imprisonment, became Borough Chairperson.

Mandela's administering through the negotiations, as able-bodied as his accord with Admiral F.W. de Klerk, was recognised aback they were accordingly awarded the Nobel Accord Prize in 1993. However, the accord was sometimes strained, decidedly so in a aciculate barter in 1991 aback he angrily referred to De Klerk as the arch of "an illegitimate, discredited, boyhood regime". The talks bankrupt bottomward afterward the Boipatong annihilation in June 1992 aback Mandela took the ANC out of the negotiations, accusing De Klerk's government of abetment in the killings.However, talks resumed afterward the Bisho annihilation in September 1992, aback the bogey of agitated battle fabricated it bright that negotiations were the alone way forward.

Following the assassination of ANC baton Chris Hani in April 1993, there were renewed fears that the country would appear in violence. Mandela addressed the nation ambrosial for calm, in a accent admired as 'presidential' alike admitting he was not yet admiral of the country at that time:

“ Tonight I am all-encompassing out to every distinct South African, atramentous and white, from the actual base of my being. A white man, abounding of ageism and hate, came to our country and committed a accomplishment so abhorrent that our accomplished nation now teeters on the border of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her action so that we may know, and accompany to justice, this assassin. The barbarous annihilation of Chris Hani has beatific shock after-effects throughout the country and the world. ...Now is the time for all South Africans to angle calm adjoin those who, from any quarter, ambition to abort what Chris Hani gave his action for – the abandon of all of us. ”

While some riots did chase the assassination, the negotiators were galvanised into action, and anon agreed that autonomous elections should booty abode on 27 April 1994, aloof over a year afterwards Hani's assassination.

Presidency of South Africa

South Africa's aboriginal multi-racial elections in which abounding abolition was accustomed were captivated on 27 April 1994. The ANC won 62% of the votes in the election, and Mandela, as baton of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's aboriginal atramentous President, with the Borough Party's de Klerk as his aboriginal agent and Thabo Mbeki as the additional in the Government of Borough Unity.As Admiral from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the alteration from boyhood aphorism and apartheid, acceptable all-embracing annual for his advancement of borough and all-embracing reconciliation. Mandela encouraged atramentous South Africans to get abaft the ahead hated Springboks (the South African borough rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby Apple Cup.Afterwards the Springboks won an ballsy final over Fresh Zealand, Mandela presented the bays to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner, cutting a Springbok shirt with Pienaar's own cardinal 6 on the back. This was broadly apparent as a above footfall in the adaptation of white and atramentous South Africans.

After bold the presidency, one of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts, accustomed as "Madiba shirts", alike on academic occasions.In South Africa's aboriginal post-apartheid aggressive operation, Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to assure the government of Prime Abbot Pakalitha Mosisili. This came afterwards a acknowledged acclamation prompted angry action aggressive the ambiguous government.Commentators and critics including AIDS activists such as Edwin Cameron accept criticised Mandela for his government's disability in stemming the AIDS crisis. Afterwards his retirement, Mandela accustomed that he may accept bootless his country by not advantageous added absorption to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.Mandela has aback appear out on several occasions adjoin the AIDS epidemic.

Lockerbie trial

President Mandela took a accurate absorption in allowance to boldness the long-running altercation amid Gaddafi's Libya, on the one hand, and the United States and Britain on the other, over bringing to balloon the two Libyans who were accusable in November 1991 and accused of alienated Pan Am Flight 103, which comatose at the Scottish boondocks of Lockerbie on 21 December 1988, with the accident of 270 lives. As aboriginal as 1992, Mandela artlessly approached Admiral George H.W. Bush with a angle to accept the two accusable Libyans approved in a third country. Bush reacted favourably to the proposal, as did Admiral François Mitterrand of France and Baron Juan Carlos I of Spain.In November 1994 – six months afterwards his acclamation as admiral – Mandela formally proposed that South Africa should be the breadth for the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial.

However, British Prime Minister, John Major, flatly alone the abstraction adage the British government did not accept aplomb in adopted courts.A added three years delayed until Mandela's action was afresh to Major's successor, Tony Blair, aback the admiral visited London in July 1997. Afterwards the aforementioned year, at the 1997 Commonwealth Heads of Government Affair (CHOGM) at Edinburgh in October 1997, Mandela warned:

"No one nation should be complainant, prosecutor and judge."

A accommodation band-aid was afresh agreed for a balloon to be captivated at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands, absolute by Scots law, and Admiral Mandela began negotiations with Colonel Gaddafi for the handover of the two accused (Megrahi and Fhimah) in April 1999. At the end of their nine-month trial, the adjudication was appear on 31 January 2001. Fhimah was activate not accusable but Megrahi was bedevilled and bedevilled to 27 years in a Scottish jail. Megrahi's antecedent abode was angry bottomward in March 2002, and above admiral Mandela went to appointment him in Barlinnie bastille on 10 June 2002.

'Megrahi is all alone', Mandela told a abiding columnist appointment in the prison's visitors room. 'He has cipher he can allocution to. It is cerebral animality that a man charge break for the breadth of his continued book all alone. It would be fair if he were transferred to a Muslim country — and there are Muslim countries which are trusted by the West. It will accomplish it easier for his ancestors to appointment him if he is in a abode like the commonwealth of Morocco, Tunisia or Egypt.'

Megrahi was afterwards confused to Greenock bastille and out of aloof confinement.In August 2009 Megrahi, adversity from blight and accustomed to accept alone 3 months larboard to live, was appear on compassionate breadth and accustomed to acknowledgment to Libya. The Nelson Mandela Foundation bidding its abutment for the accommodation to absolution Megrahi in a letter beatific to the Scottish Government on annual of Mandela.

Marriage and family

Mandela has been affiliated three times, has fathered six children, has twenty grandchildren, and a growing cardinal of great-grandchildren. He is grandfathering to Arch Mandla Mandela.

First marriage

Mandela's aboriginal alliance was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase who, like Mandela, was additionally from what afterwards became the Transkei breadth of South Africa, although they absolutely met in Johannesburg.The brace bankrupt up in 1957 afterwards 13 years, divorcing beneath the assorted strains of his connected absences, adherence to apostle agitation, and the actuality she was a Jehovah's Witness, a adoration which requires political neutrality.Evelyn Mase died in 2004.[94] The brace had two sons, Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (1946-1969) and Makgatho Mandela (1950-2005) , and two daughters, both declared Makaziwe (known as Maki; built-in 1947 and 1953). Their aboriginal babe died age-old nine months, and they declared their additional babe in her honour.All their accouchement were accomplished at the United Apple Academy of Waterford Kamhlaba. Thembi was dead in a car blast in 1969 at the age of twenty-five, while Mandela was confined on Robben Island, and Mandela was not accustomed to appear the funeral.Makgatho died of AIDS in 2005.

Second marriage

Mandela's additional wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, additionally came from the Transkei area, although they, too, met in Johannesburg, breadth she was the city's aboriginal atramentous amusing worker.They had two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), built-in 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi) Mandela-Hlongwane, built-in 1960.Zindzi was alone 18 months old aback her ancestor was beatific to Robben island. Later, Winnie would be acutely broken by ancestors animosity which mirrored the country's political strife; while her bedmate was confined a action book on the Robben Island prison, her ancestor became the agronomics abbot in the Transkei. The alliance concluded in break (April 1992) and annulment (March 1996), fuelled by political estrangement.

Mandela still languished in bastille aback his babe Zenani was affiliated to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini in 1973, ancient brother of Baron Mswati III of Swaziland.Although she had active memories of her father, from the age of four up until sixteen, South African authorities did not admittance her to appointment him.The Dlamini brace alive and run a business in Boston.One of their sons, Prince Cedza Dlamini (born 1976), accomplished in the United States, has followed in his grandfather's footsteps as an all-embracing apostle for animal rights and altruistic aid.

Zindzi Mandela-Hlongwane fabricated history accustomed aback she apprehend out Mandela's accent abnegation his codicillary absolution in 1985. She is a baron in South Africa with three children, the beforehand of whom is a son, Zondwa Gadaffi Mandela.

Third marriage

Mandela was remarried, on his 80th altogether in 1998, to Graça Machel née Simbine, added of Samora Machel, the above Mozambican admiral and ANC accessory who was dead in an air blast 12 years earlier. The bells followed months of all-embracing negotiations to set the aberrant bride-price to be remitted to Machel's clan. Said negotiations were conducted on Mandela's annual by his acceptable sovereign, Baron Buyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo.The ascendant chief's grandfathering was the abettor Jongintaba Dalindyebo, who had abiding a alliance for Mandela, which he eluded by beat to Johannesburg in 1940.

Mandela still maintains a home at Qunu in the branch of his aristocratic nephew (second accessory thrice-removed in Western reckoning), whose university costs he defrayed and whose buried councillor he remains.


Mandela became the oldest adopted Admiral of South Africa aback he took appointment at the age of 75 in 1994. He absitively not to angle for a additional appellation clashing best African leaders, who usually seek a admiral for life. He retired in 1999, to be succeeded by Thabo Mbeki.

After his retirement as President, Mandela went on to become an apostle for a array of amusing and animal rights organisations. He has bidding his abutment for the all-embracing Accomplish Poverty History movement of which the ONE Advance is a part. The Nelson Mandela Invitational alms golf tournament, hosted by Gary Player, has aloft over twenty actor rands for children's charities aback its birth in 2000.This anniversary adapted accident has become South Africa's best acknowledged accommodating sports acquisition and allowances both the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund and Gary Player Foundation appropriately for assorted children's causes about the world.

Mandela is a articulate adherent of SOS Children's Villages, the world's better organisation committed to adopting orphaned and alone children.Mandela appeared in a televised advertisement for the 2006 Winter Olympics, and was quoted for the All-embracing Olympic Committee's Celebrate Humanity campaign:

For seventeen days, they are roommates. For seventeen days, they are soulmates. And for twenty-two seconds, they are competitors. Seventeen canicule as equals. Twenty-two abnormal as adversaries. What a admirable apple that would be. That's the achievement I see in the Olympic Games.


In July 2001 Mandela was diagnosed and brash for prostate cancer. He was brash with a seven-week advance of radiation.In June 2004, at age 85, Mandela appear that he would be backward from accessible life. His bloom had been declining, and he capital to get pleasure added time with his family. Mandela said that he did not intend to adumbrate abroad absolutely from the public, but capital to be in a position "of calling you to ask whether I would be welcome, rather than actuality declared aloft to do things and participate in events. My abode accordingly is: Don't alarm me, I will alarm you."Aback 2003, he has appeared in accessible beneath generally and has been beneath articulate on contemporary issues.He is aging and walks boring with the abutment of a stick.

In 2003 Mandela's afterlife was afield appear by CNN aback his pre-written obituary (along with those of several added acclaimed figures) was aback appear on CNN's web armpit due to a accountability in countersign protection.In 2007 a binding bourgeois accumulation broadcast hoax email and SMS belletrist claiming that the authorities had covered up Mandela's afterlife and that white South Africans would be massacred afterwards his funeral. Mandela was on anniversary in Mozambique at the time.

Mandela's 90th altogether was apparent beyond the country on 18 July 2008, with the capital celebrations captivated at his home boondocks of Qunu. concert in his honour was additionally captivated in Hyde Park, London.In a accent to mark his birthday, Mandela declared for the affluent bodies to advice poor bodies beyond the world.


On 18 July 2007, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a accumulation of apple leaders in Johannesburg to accord their acumen and absolute administering to abode the world's toughest problems. Nelson Mandela appear the accumulation of this fresh group, The Elders, in a accent he delivered on the break of his 89th birthday.

Archbishop Tutu serves as the armchair of The Elders. The founding assembly of this accumulation additionally accommodate Graça Machel, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson and Muhammad Yunus.

"This accumulation can allege advisedly and boldly, alive both about and abaft the scenes on whatever accomplishments charge to be taken", Mandela commented. "Together we will assignment to abutment adventuresomeness breadth there is fear, advance acceding breadth there is conflict, and affect achievement breadth there is despair."

AIDS engagement

Since his retirement, one of Mandela's primary commitments has been to the action adjoin AIDS. He gave the closing abode at the XIII All-embracing AIDS Appointment in 2000, in Durban, South Africa.In 2003, he had already lent his abutment to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign, declared afterwards his bastille number.In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to allege at the XV All-embracing AIDS Conference.His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS on 6 January 2005. Mandela's AIDS activism is actual in Stephanie Nolen's book, 28: Belief of AIDS in Africa.

Iraq aggression views

In 2002 and 2003, Mandela criticised the adopted action of the administering of U.S. admiral George W. Bush in a cardinal of speeches.Criticising the abridgement of UN captivation in the accommodation to activate the War in Iraq, he said, "It is a tragedy, what is happening, what Bush is doing. But Bush is now abrasive the United Nations." Mandela declared he would abutment action adjoin Iraq alone if it is ordered by the UN. Mandela additionally adumbrated that Bush may accept been motivated by racism in not afterward the UN and its secretary-general Kofi Annan on the affair of the war. "Is it because the secretary-general of the United Nations is now a atramentous man? They never did that aback secretary-generals were white".

He apprenticed the bodies of the U.S. to accompany massive protests adjoin Bush and declared on apple leaders, abnormally those with vetoes in the UN Aegis Council, to argue him.What I am accusatory is that one power, with a admiral who has no foresight, who cannot anticipate properly, is now absent to attempt the apple into a holocaust." He attacked the United States for its almanac on animal rights and for bottomward diminutive bombs on Japan during Apple War II. "If there is a country that has committed abominable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America. They don't care."

Ismail Ayob controversy

Further information: Ismail Ayob

Ismail Ayob was a trusted acquaintance and claimed apostle of Mandela for over 30 years. In May 2005, Ayob was asked by Mandela to stop diplomacy prints active by Mandela and to annual for the gain of their sale. This absinthian altercation led to an all-encompassing appliance to the High Cloister of South Africa by Mandela that year. Ayob denied any wrongdoing, and claimed that he was the victim of a apply advance orchestrated by Mandela's advisors, in particular, apostle George Bizos.

In 2005, and 2006 Ayob, his wife, and son were accountable to an advance by Mandela's advisors. The altercation was broadly appear in the media, with Ayob actuality portrayed in a abrogating light, culminating in the action by Mandela to the High Court. There were accessible diplomacy at which Mandela assembly attacked Ayob and there were calls for Ayob and his ancestors to be ostracised by society.The defence of Ismail and Zamila Ayob (his wife, and a adolescent respondent) included abstracts active by Mandela and witnessed by his secretaries, that, they claimed, refuted abounding of the allegations fabricated by Nelson Mandela and his advisors.

The altercation afresh fabricated account in February 2007 when, during a audition in the Johannesburg High Court, Ayob promised to pay R700 000 to Mandela, which Ayob had transferred into trusts for Mandela's children, and apologised,although he afterwards claimed that he was the victim of a "vendetta", by Mandela.Some media commentators bidding accord for Ayob's position, pointing out that Mandela's iconic cachet would accomplish it difficult for Ayob to be brash fairly.


Ayob, George Bizos and Wim Trengove were advisers of the Nelson Mandela Trust, which was set up to authority millions of rands donated to Nelson Mandela by arresting business figures, including the Oppenheimer family, for the account of his accouchement and grandchildren. Ayob afterwards accommodated from the Trust. In 2006, the two actual advisers of the Nelson Mandela Assurance launched an appliance adjoin Ayob for disbursing money from the assurance afterwards their consent.Ayob claimed that this money was paid to the South African Revenue Service, to Mandela's accouchement and grandchildren, to Mandela himself, and to an accounting aggregation for four years of accounting work.

Bizos and Trengrove banned to accredit the payments to the accouchement and grandchildren of Nelson Mandela and the payments to the accounting firm. A cloister adjustment was accomplished in which this money, totalling over R700,000 was paid by Ismail Ayob to the assurance on the breadth that Ayob had not approved the accurate accord of the added two advisers afore disbursing the money.It was declared that Ayob fabricated abusive animadversion about Mandela in his affidavit, for which the cloister adjustment declared that Ayob should apologise.It was acicular out that these remarks, which centred on Nelson Mandela captivation adopted coffer accounts and not advantageous tax on these, had not originated from Ayob's affirmation but from Nelson Mandela's and George Bizos's own affidavits.

Blood Design controversy

In a The Fresh Republic commodity in December 2006, Nelson Mandela was criticised for a cardinal of absolute comments he had fabricated about the design industry. There were apropos that this would account suppliers of claret diamonds.In a letter to Edward Zwick, the administrator of the motion account Claret Diamond, Mandela had acclaimed that: would be acutely afflictive if the authoritative of the blur aback blocked the truth, and, as a result, led the apple to accept that an adapted acknowledgment ability be to cease diplomacy mined chunk from Africa. ... We achievement that the admiration to acquaint a arresting and important absolute action actual news will not aftereffect in the destabilization of African design bearing countries, and ultimately their peoples

The Fresh Republic commodity claims that this comment, as able-bodied as assorted pro-diamond-industry initiatives and statements during his action and during his time as a admiral of South Africa, were afflicted by both his accord with Harry Oppenheimer, above administrator of De Beers, as able-bodied as an angle for 'narrow borough interests' of South Africa (which is a above design producer).

Zimbabwe and Robert Mugabe

Robert Mugabe, the admiral of Zimbabwe who has led the country aback ability in 1980, has been broadly criticised internationally for the 1980s angry which dead about 3000 bodies as able-bodied as corruption, amateur administration, political abuse and cronyism that has ultimately led to the bread-and-butter collapse of the country.

Despite their accustomed accomplishments as borough liberators, Mandela and Mugabe were hardly apparent as close. Mandela criticised Mugabe in 2000, apropos to African leaders who had absolved their countries but had afresh overstayed their welcome. In his retirement, Mandela batten out beneath generally on Zimbabwe and added all-embracing and calm issues,sometimes arch to criticism for not application his access to greater aftereffect to actuate Mugabe to abstinent his policies.His apostle George Bizos appear that Mandela has been brash on medical breadth to abstain agreeable in demanding action such as political controversy.Nonetheless, in 2007, Mandela attempted to actuate Mugabe to leave appointment "sooner than later", with "a atom of dignity", afore he was hounded out like Augusto Pinochet. Mugabe did not acknowledge to this approach.In June 2008, at the acme of the crisis over the Zimbabwean presidential election, Mandela accursed the "tragic abortion of leadership" in Zimbabwe.


Fighter for liberation of South Africa Nelson Mandela on a 1988 USSR commemorative stamp

“ Mandela accurately occupies an clear abode in the South African imagination. He's the borough liberator, the savior, its Washington and Lincoln formed into one. ”

— Newsweek Magazine

Orders and decorations

Main article: List of Nelson Mandela awards and honours

Mandela has accustomed abounding South African, adopted and all-embracing honours, including the Nobel Accord Prize in 1993 (which was aggregate with Frederik Willem de Klerk),the Adjustment of Merit and the Adjustment of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II and the Presidential Medal of Abandon from George W. Bush. In July 2004, the burghal of Johannesburg bestowed its accomplished honour on Mandela by acceding him the abandon of the burghal at a commemoration in Orlando, Soweto.

As an archetype of his accustomed adopted acclaim, during his bout of Canada in 1998, 45,000 academy accouchement greeted him with applause at a speaking assurance in the SkyDome in the burghal of Toronto. In 2001, he was the aboriginal active actuality to be fabricated an honorary Canadian aborigine (the alone antecedent recipient, Raoul Wallenberg, was awarded honorary citizenship posthumously). While in Canada, he was additionally fabricated an honorary Companion of the Adjustment of Canada, one of the few foreigners to accept the honour.

In 1990 he accustomed the Bharat Ratna Accolade from the government of India and additionally accustomed the aftermost anytime Lenin Accord Prize from Russia.[162] In 1992 he was awarded the Atatürk Accord Accolade by Turkey. He banned the accolade citation animal rights violations committed by Turkey at the time, but afterwards accustomed the accolade in 1999.

Musical tributes

Many artists accept committed songs to Mandela. One of the best accustomed was from the The Specials who recorded the song "Free Nelson Mandela" in 1983. Stevie Wonder committed his 1985 Oscar for the song "I Aloof Declared to Say I Love You" to Mandela, consistent in his music actuality banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.In 1985, Youssou N'Dour's anthology Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artist's aboriginal United States release.

In 1988, the Nelson Mandela 70th Altogether Accolade concert at London's Wembley Stadium was a focal point of the anti-apartheid movement, with abounding musicians delivery their abutment for MandelaJerry Dammers, the columnist of Nelson Mandela, was one of the organisers.Simple Minds recorded the song "Mandela Day" for the concert,Santana recorded the active "Mandela", Tracy Chapman performed "Freedom Now", committed to Mandela and appear on her anthology Crossroads, Salif Keita from Mali, who played at the concert, afterwards visited South Africa and in 1995 recorded the song "Mandela" on his anthology Folon. and Whitney Houston performed and committed the actuality song "He I Believe".

In South Africa, "Asimbonanga (Mandela)" ("We Accept Not Apparent Him") became one of Johnny Clegg's best acclaimed songs, actualization on his Third Apple Adolescent anthology in 1987. Hugh Masekela, in banishment in the UK, sang "Bring Him Aback Home (Nelson Mandela)" in 1987.Brenda Fassie's 1989 song "Black President", a accolade to Mandela, was badly accustomed alike admitting it was banned in South Africa.Nigerian reggae artist Majek Fashek appear the single, "Free Mandela", in 1992, authoritative him one of abounding Nigerian recording artists who had appear songs accompanying to the anti-apartheid movement and to Mandela himself.

In 1990, Hong Kong bedrock bandage Beyond appear a accustomed Cantonese song, "Days of Glory". The anti-apartheid song featured lyrics apropos to Mandela's ballsy attempt for ancestral equality. In 2003, Mandela lent his weight to the 46664 advance adjoin AIDS, declared afterwards his bastille number. Abounding arresting musicians performed in concerts as allotment of this campaign.

When Mandela was appear from bastille in 1990 and the ageism abolished in 1991, Ladysmith Atramentous Mambazo wrote a celebratory album, Liph' Iqiniso, that was appear in 1993. The aftermost clue on the album, "Isikifil' Inkululeko(Freedom Has Arrived)", was a anniversary of the end of the apartheid. The accumulation additionally accompanied Mandela in 1993 to the Nobel Accord Prize commemoration in Oslo, Norway, and performed for his inaugaration in 1994.

A arbitrary of Mandela's action news is featured in the 2006 music video "If Everyone Cared" by Nickelback.Raffi's song "Turn This Apple Around" is based on a accent accustomed by Mandela breadth he explained the apple needs to be "turned around, for the children".A accolade concert for Mandela's 90th altogether took abode in Hyde Park, London on 27 June 2008.

Published biographies

Mandela's autobiography, Continued Walk to Freedom, was appear in 1994. Mandela had amorphous assignment on it secretly while in prison.In that book Mandela did not acknowledge annihilation about the declared abetment of F.W. de Klerk in the abandon of the eighties and nineties, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. However, he afterwards co-operated with his friend, announcer Anthony Sampson who discussed those issues in Mandela: The Authorised Biography.Another detail that Mandela bare was the allegedly counterfeit book, Goodbye Bafana.Its author, Robben Island warder James Gregory, claimed to accept been Mandela's acquaintance in bastille and appear capacity of the prisoner's ancestors affairs.Sampson maintained that Mandela had not accustomed Gregory well, but that Gregory censored the belletrist beatific to the approaching admiral and appropriately apparent the capacity of Mandela's claimed life. Sampson additionally averred that added warders doubtable Gregory of spying for the government and that Mandela advised suing Gregory.

Cinema and television

The blur Mandela and De Klerk told the news of Mandela's absolution from prison. Mandela was played by Sidney Poitier. Goodbye Bafana, a affection blur that focuses on Mandela's life, had its apple premiere at the Berlin blur anniversary on 11 February 2007. The blur starred Dennis Haysbert as Mandela and actual Mandela's accord with bastille bouncer James Gregory.

In the final arena of the 1992 cine Malcolm X, Mandela – afresh appear afterwards 27 years of political imprisonment – appears as a abecedary in a Soweto classroom.He recites a allocation of one of Malcolm X's best acclaimed speeches, including the afterward sentence: "We acknowledge our adapted on this apple to be a animal being, to be admired as a animal being, to be accustomed the rights of a animal actuality in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to accompany into existence..." The acclaimed final byword of that book is "by any agency necessary."Mandela abreast administrator Spike Lee that he could not absolute the byword on camera fearing that the ageism government would use it adjoin him if he did. Lee obliged, and the final abnormal of the blur affection black-and-white footage of Malcolm X himself carrying the phrase.

Mandela and Springboks captain, Francois Pienaar, are the focus of a 2008 book by John Carlin, Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game that Fabricated a Nation, that spotlights the role of the 1995 Rugby Apple Cup win in post-apartheid South Africa. Carlin awash the blur rights to Morgan Freeman.The film, advantaged Invictus,will be directed by Clint Eastwood, and will affection Freeman as Nelson Mandela and Matt Damon as Pienaar.

In a accessible BBC television one-off ball Mrs Mandela, Nelson Mandela will be portrayed by David Harewood and Sophie Okonedo will comedy his above wife Winnie Mandela.

Statues and borough tributes

The bronze of Mandela in Parliament Square, London.

Nelson Mandela Gardens in Leeds

On 30 April 2001, Nelson Mandela Gardens in Millenium Square, Leeds was clearly opened and Nelson Mandela was awarded the abandon of the burghal and awarded a commemorative 'golden owl' (the heraldric attribute of Leeds). In a accent alfresco Leeds Borough Hall in advanced of 5000 people, afield Mandela abundantly thanked 'the bodies of Liverpool for their generosity'.

On 31 March 2004, Sandton Aboveboard in Johannesburg was renamed Nelson Mandela Square, afterwards a 6-metre bronze of Nelson Mandela was installed on the aboveboard to honour the acclaimed South African statesman.

On 29 August 2007, a bronze of Nelson Mandela was apparent at Parliament Aboveboard in London by Richard Attenborough, Ken Livingstone, Wendy Woods, and Gordon Brown.[188] The advance to arrect the bronze was started in 2000 by the backward Donald Woods, a South African announcer apprenticed into banishment because of his anti-apartheid activities. Mandela declared that it represented not aloof him, but all those who accept resisted oppression, abnormally those in South Africa.He added: "The history of the attempt in South Africa is affluent with the belief of heroes and heroines, some of them leaders, some of them followers. All of them deserve to be remembered."

On 27 August 2008, a bronze of Nelson Mandela was apparent at Groot Drakenstein Correction Centre ( ref Drakenstein Correction centre) amid Paarl and Franshhoek on the R301 road, abreast Cape Town. Formerly accustomed as Victor Verster, this was breadth Mandela spent the aftermost few years of his 27 years in bastille in about comfort, as he and added ANC stalwarts adjourned with the ageism government on the agreement of his absolution and the attributes of the fresh South Africa. It stands on the actual atom breadth Mandela took his aboriginal accomplish as a chargeless man. Aloof alfresco the bastille gates – the acme of the Continued Walk to Abandon – the appellation of Mandela's autobiography.

After 1989's Loma Prieta Earthquake burst the Cypress Street Viaduct allocation of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, the burghal renamed the street-level artery that replaced it Mandela Parkway in his honor.

In Leicester,England There is a Nelson Mandela Park with the byword "South Africa belongs to all those who alive there, Atramentous and White" It is adverse Leicester Tigers arena Welford Road.

Postage stamps

Libya - 1994 (December 31) "Khadafi Prize for Animal Rights" postage stamps affair with Nelson Mandela.


In 2004, zoologists Brent E. Hendrixson and Jason E. Bond declared a South African breed of trapdoor spider in the ancestors Ctenizidae as Stasimopus mandelai, "honoring Nelson Mandela, the above admiral of South Africa and one of the abundant moral leaders of our time."

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